Reading the Newspaper like a Mathematician

FCL 2019

Imogen I. Morris

“It’s time to let the secret out: Mathematics is not primarily a matter of plugging numbers into formulas and performing rote computations. It is a way of thinking and questioning that may be unfamiliar to many of us, but is available to almost all of us.”

From ‘A Mathematician Reads the Newspaper’ by John Allen Paulos
Slide: The Daily News, A mathematician read a newspaper!

Newspapers and online articles are filled with an attractive, addictive jumble of gossip, headlines, statistics, quotes, tips, life-changing news and celebrities. How do we sort this mess into fact, fiction, or, as I suspect forms the majority, somewhat meaningful half-truths? Making this task harder, is our innate wishful-thinking. As humans, we find it hard to look past our emotions and biases to evaluate articles and arguments in a rational objective way. This is where maths, particularly logic and statistics, can help us. And contrary to common belief, this doesn’t mean we need big calculations, abstraction from reality or number-crunching. Rather, we need to creatively imagine alternative scenarios to encourage a healthy skepticism; we need to puzzle-out mind-boggling statistical paradoxes and we need to use rational-thinking to find a clear path through an otherwise misleading and overcrowded junk-heap of ‘facts’.

 In our workshop for the Festival of Creative Learning 2019, we applied a few simple concepts to analyse a selection of print articles and online articles on current news topics. One of the most useful concepts was the difference between good arguments, which are merely those which are reasonable, and valid arguments, which are those that if you believe the assumptions, you have to believe the conclusion. We are more likely to believe an argument is valid if we believe the assumptions and the conclusion. Can you spot which of the following arguments is valid? 

  1. Tidying our houses means that our possessions are easy to find. Therefore tidying our houses makes us feel better.
  2. Cannibalism is a personal and acceptable choice although it causes harm to people. Therefore it is okay to inflict harm on people.

In the workshop, attendees chose to analyse a varied range of article topics from various sources. The body language of Shamima Begum, the health benefits of pomegranates, a rise in Chinese applications to Scottish universities, antibiotic resistance and a politically-charged article on the SNP investment plan are just a few. Almost universally, we found that the articles appealed to unnamed ‘experts’ for facts, unnamed ‘studies’ for statistics and unnamed ‘critics’ for opinions. Emotionally-charged language such as ‘back-of-a-fag-packet’ or ‘massive ego’ abounded and so did unexplained sciencey-buzzwords e.g. ‘phytochemicals’. The domains of statistics were unspecified. Apparently ‘a quarter of Chinese applications are to Scottish universities’. Is that likely? We believe the author meant ‘out of those to UK universities’. Arguments were never out of a logic textbook, but reconstructing implicit premises and reasoning, we found many that were reasonable. However, particularly the politically charged articles tended to be one-sided, presenting mostly arguments from one side.

Why not have a go at analysing a news article yourself? Here are some tips for conducting a logical and statistics-savvy investigation. Compare your analysis with the way you normally read an article. Do you find that you see flaws in statements that you would usually take on trust?

  • Try to determine the thesis of the article. What are the author’s conclusions? What is being argued for and against?
  • Is this intended to be one person’s opinion or as an objective news article? Has it been clearly labelled as opinion or fact?
  • Search out emotive language. Is it helpful in understanding the feelings of other people, or is it exaggerated and manipulative?
  • Look for counterexamples to every conclusion drawn. If they are outlandish, the conclusion is probably reasonable.
  • Work out the underlying reasoning behind arguments. Once you have found what you think is the general structure, think again whether the argument is reasonable.
  • Look for some reference for every fact (e.g. to a study, expert, book) and evaluate the quality of the reference.
  • Do the statistics make sense? Is the value expected or surprising? Sometimes a news article can present the statistic in different ways to make it seem big or small. For example, they could say ‘1000 people in the UK get disease X every year’ which seems like a lot. Or they could say ‘the chances of anyone getting disease X are 0.0015%’ which seems unbelievably small. But in fact, they are equivalent statements! So think of alternative presentations of the statistic before you decide it is large or small.
  • Are there any implicit assumptions, including stereotypes or assumptions based on our culture?
  • Is the article balanced and fair? Would anyone feel offended by what the article says?
  • Is the headline relatively accurate compared to the actual content of the article?
  • If there are any photographs, visuals and graphs, do they contradict the content of the article? Are they emotive or do they mislead? Have they been accurately labelled and explained?

If you would like to explore this topic further, here are some of the resources I found inspiring when putting this workshop together.

Books

‘A mathematician reads the newspaper’ by John Allen Paulos

‘Logic’ by Wilfred Hodges

Online

Some interesting resources on using argument technology to analyse an ethical debate:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/taster/pilots/moral-maze

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/251N2YBLLwmPJnVvDn94GQR/moral-maze-eight-ways-to-win-an-argument

Collections of spurious correllations:

http://www.tylervigen.com/spurious-correlations

Guide to logical fallacies with examples of politicians making those fallacies:

https://lifehacker.com/spot-the-flaw-in-a-politicians-argument-with-this-guide-1796333209

BBC podcast on spotting statistical fallacies in the news and understanding statistics in our lives:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02nrss1/episodes/downloads

Looking Back at The Dissection of Medical Dramas

The Dissection of Medical Dramas was a fun and interactive workshop that used role-play and popular television medical dramas, such as Grey’s Anatomy, Chicago MED and Scrubs to identify and discuss ethical issues that arise in the medical context. It aimed to enhance the audience’s understanding of the issues.

Dissection of Medical Dramas Poster

The workshop covered various issues, such as:

  • The four governing principles in medical ethics
  • Consent
    • Explicit and implied consent
    • Consent and refusal of consent
    • Informed and valid consent
  • Rights of refusal in relation to competent adult patients
  • Rights of refusal in relation to women in late pregnancy
    • Limits to autonomy in pregnant women
  • Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) Orders
  • Advance Directives/Decisions
  • Children
    • Mature Minors and Gillick Competency
    • Parental refusal
    • Best Interests
  • Mental Capacity
Dissection of Medical Dramas Slide

The audience members were very engaged during the discussion of these matters and raised some extremely relevant and interesting questions, allowing for reflection and consideration of some controversial, topical and emotive issues. Most audience members participated and we had some illuminating discussions as a result of the questions raised by the audience members. This was extremely rewarding and added to the overall value of the experience.

Photo of attendees at Dissection of Medical Dramas

The feedback we received from the audience on our event was very positive. All of the audience members who provided feedback said that they would recommend the event to others and that they learnt something new. Almost all of them said that they found the event to be very useful. Upon reflection of the event, we felt like we would need to better manage our time should we run our event again in the future as we were unable to cover the role-play segment on the day. We had an unexpected, yet welcome, enthusiastic and highly engaged audience that raised several questions and issues after each clip. It was more important to have audience engagement than cover everything we had planned, however, in future we aim to better prepare for this so the audience gets to experience both segments, while ensuring that they can still be actively engaged.

Furthermore, the event might have benefited from a different room as the lighting, which would not turn off, reduced the quality of the images and video clips we showed.  The room boasted terrific views of the coast line and the Firth of Forth, but unfortunately the window blinds had to be drawn.  Another feature that could be considered should we run the event in the future would be acquiring a smaller, more intimate space as this one was quite big, making the number of audience members look smaller.  Some people mentioned that the room itself was not the easiest to find and possibly a more easily accessible room would increase numbers.

This experience has nevertheless been amazing and certainly highly rewarding. The event has had a great impact as shown by the positive feedback we received and we have also been approached by members of staff to discuss our event with the purpose of sharing it with others.

Zahra Jaffer and Lynn Kennedy

LLC Blethers

Image of Veronica Vivi, this year's LLC Blethers Lead Organiser
Veronica Vivi is this year’s LLC Blethers Lead Organiser

LLC Blethers has once again been part of the Festival of Creative Learning and it has been a success! Looking back at the months of organising and planning that preceded the event, I can say that LLC Blethers was a team effort and that the hard work paid off. 

LLC Blethers is an evening of a series of lightning talks, where presenters support their presentation with 20 slides each lasting 20 seconds. The format requires fast talking, confident presentation skills, good timing and the ability to engage with the public while delivering more or less complex and academic topics. The series of talks is then evaluated by a jury formed by Edinburgh University staff and/or members who will decide the overall best presentation and will also award different prizes for other categories (such as ‘best use of the format’, ‘most creative’, and so on). This year we had the pleasure to be joined by Michelle Keown, Alan Binnie, Miriam Gamble and Niki Holzapfel. 

The event took place at The Counting House as we always strive to organise the event at an informal venue to promote students and staff to mingle in a context outside university which fosters communication and interpersonal relations. 

The plethora of presenters who joined us this year and which were selected through a Call for Presentations earlier in January were from the Postgraduate community in LLC and they all did a superb job at crafting and presenting their talks. We had the chance to display a variety of interests and academic research, from table-top role-playing games about climate change, to a feminist overview on banning the Disney princesses, to how to make a movie on a micro-budget. 

No less importantly, the event would not have been the same without the support of local businesses who kindly offered prizes and vouchers for the winning presentations. 

You can find more about LLC Blethers at http://llcblethers.weebly.com.

Creative Learning in Anatomy

facial muscles workshop photo
Facial muscles made from wax on plastic skulls, How Do We Make Facial Expressions?

I am a Teaching Fellow in Anatomy and a freelance Medical Illustrator with a passion for the enhancement of anatomy education through the use of art and technology. Anatomy is a visual subject; one which students must be hands-on with to allow for them to understand the three-dimensional composition of the body. The use of creative learning techniques compliments anatomy education extremely well as it allows students to recreate the anatomy through different materials. I am interested in the different resources we can create for students outside the anatomy lab to aid in their learning, but also the resources we can offer to people with an interest in human anatomy, so what could be a better place than the Festival of Creative Learning?

As part of the Festival of Creative Learning I organised two arts-based workshops, with the help of my colleagues, focusing on different areas of the body; How Do We Make Facial Expressions? and Art-Beat: Art and Anatomy Presents Clay Hearts. Both workshops were hands-on creating the anatomy from either wax or clay, to build up a three-dimensional representation of the muscles of facial expression or the structure of the heart.

Clay Hearts

Anatomical clay hearts, Art-Beat: Art and Anatomy Presents Clay Hearts

The workshops were open to anyone with an interest in human anatomy and trying new creative ways of learning. Both workshops had to accommodate for the varying levels of anatomical knowledge to allow for everyone to understand and also to enjoy the information they were learning. Therefore for both workshops I used a presentation to display images and anatomical terminology to help guide the attendees through the anatomy.

The goal of the workshops was for the attendees to feel that they had learnt something new by the end of the workshop, whether that be anatomical information or a new artistic skill. The great thing about using art as a learning resource is that it can make your mind focus on the task of creating something, and help you relax from our busy everyday lives. This kind of learning technique also allows for us to create an end product, which can be taken home and admired, such as the clay hearts, or photos taken to show everyone your creation, like the muscles of facial expression sculptures.

Both workshops received positive feedback, which I was extremely pleased about, not only as it showed people enjoyed the workshops, but also because the comments showed that people left feeling like that had learnt something new. The words used to describe the workshops were brilliant; therapeutic, fun, innovative and relaxing, to name a few! The Festival of Creative Learning was an excellent place to try out these new ideas, and I would highly recommend the festival to anyone who wants to try out a new idea!

To find out more about ArtBeat: Art & Anatomy Edinburgh, a group running art-based anatomy workshops at the University of Edinburgh, follow us on Twitter @ArtbeatEd and on Facebook @artbeatedinburgh. You can also keep up-to-date with anatomy events on the Anatomy@Edinburgh website; www.ed.ac.uk/anatomy or follow us on Twitter @AnatomyatEd.

Thanks for reading and I hope this inspires more people to think about using art to learn more about the human body!

Victoria McCulloch

Sharing Stories From #FCL18

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by Mihaela Bodlovic

It is seven weeks today since the curated week of the Festival of Creative Learning (19th – 23rd February) started and we are already well along with planning for the 2019 Festival. Jennifer and I are still processing the feedback and evaluations from the week and aiming to refine our processes and resources over the summer, but early indications suggest it was a great success! Compared to last year when we spent a whole week in ‘Festival Decompression’, locked away in a quiet room getting our heads round our first year at the helm, this year we only spent a half day planning our summer work priorities, suggesting we have now found our feet.

One of the creative outputs we commissioned for this year was a new Festival Film, expertly crafted by Archie Crofton. We are absolutely delighted with the result and strongly encourage you to watch and share widely as a celebration of one of many great initiatives at the University of Edinburgh. The full film is available on Mediahopper. Alongside the film, we also invested in a full portfolio of photos from many events, captured by expert photographer Mihaela Bodlovic. A selection of these photos have or will be shared on our social media channels over the coming weeks. View the first album of day one on our Facebook page.

 Organiser Stories

It is always a pleasure to read the stories that appear in various creative formats from our Event Organisers. Some of them will be sharing with you directly over the coming months via this blog, so stay tuned. Below are some examples of records that are available for your reading pleasure, providing an insight into some of the events and activities that took place during the week.

Finally, in our organiser survey this year one of the questions was ‘If you were to tell a friend about what your most memorable experience was over the course of preparing for and delivering your event, what would it be?’ These are some of my personal favourites:

  • Running around University campus carrying ice-cream mix, dry-ice and a large stand mixer.
  • The event itself and the pleasant interaction with people, those who attended our event really were passionate about the topic, and that was great to see.
  • The creation and strengthening of the community.
  • It is very refreshing to be involved in academic dynamism and get to know people from different backgrounds.

 

Monitor our website for pop-up events taking place during the rest of the year.

The best souvenir from Edinburgh

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I read somewhere that words and ideas are big stones in a river. Jumping from one to another you can get to the other side. However, if you always jump on the same ones, you always end up at the same point. The edge of the river is long and there are lots of different flowers.

On February 16th, at 10 pm, I arrived in Edinburgh to attend The Festival of Creative Learning. Pulling my bags on the steep streets, the only noise in the city was the little wheels of my luggage. Cloc cloc cloc. All the rest was quiet and beautiful and magnificent.

I am currently working as the Communications and Outreach Technician at the Institut de Neurociències of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (INc-UAB). My tasks include, among others, designing activities to share with the general public what researchers do, and helping to establish a dialogue between scientists and society, for a better and more responsible research.

I usually look on the internet to find out what is going on in Science Communication and Public Engagement in other institutions, to find inspiration to do my job. That is how I discovered the Festival, which seemed an amazing initiative to me. I contacted Jennifer Williams, Festival Coordinator, and she told me they were open to receive my visit. Thanks to an Erasmus grant and all the help Lucy Ridley, Festival Administrator, Natalie Poyser, Senior Admin Officer – Business Operations, and Jennifer gave me, there I was, ready for new ideas!

By ‘new ideas’ I mean two different things. On one hand, they are different solutions to a challenge, using tools that are not the usual ones. It is an excellent new idea to explain what rubisco does through a virtual reality game in which you are the enzyme and have to capture carbon dioxide to convert it into sugar. It must be what creative means. The Festival was full of creative ideas that made me want to know more about the world.

photosynthesis

On the other hand, a ‘new idea’ is a new thought that opens a fresh perspective on a thing that you already knew. Like when you suddenly understand the lyrics of a song you sang when you were a child. It is impossible to return to the previous point anymore, as your perception is changed forever. This should be what learning means. I learned a lot at the Festival, about all sorts of things: minerals, language, folklore, plants, poetry, witches…

I am so grateful to the Institute for the Academic Development for giving me the chance to attend the Festival. I would especially like to thank Natalie for all the paperwork, and Jennifer and Lucy for organizing everything. I could feel all the energy and love they put on the Festival, and I think that is one of the reasons that make the project great. I would also like to thank the people I had meetings with, who shared their brilliant work with me: Dr. Jane Haley, Dr. Heather Rea, Dr. James Howie, Colin Sanderson and Stuart Dunbar. Talking to all of them was very, very interesting for me.

I came back home full of vitality and happiness. Everybody had been so generous with me and had put so many new stones in my river- the best souvenir I could ever bring home. Now it is time to explore the edge and smell all these beautiful flowers.

Roser Bastida Barau

Festival Fever

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Well I can’t quite believe it, but the Festival of Creative Learning is nearly here again, and it is shaping up to be one remarkable week!

Last year I had only just started a few months before the Festival, so it felt as if the main task was getting my head around what in the world it all was and how best I could help support the brilliant organisers to realise their dream events. It was a wild ride of a Festival and there are so many memories I treasure, even though I managed to come down with a not very creative cold. In spite of that, I sniffled and sneezed my way through the Birds and the Bees board game, finding penguin love to the jungle music of monkeys and birds in Potterrow’s trees. I watched the bright colours drawn out of the dyeing vats by attendees at the Edinburgh Medieval Pigment Project’s event (they’re working their natural magic again this year! Check it out at: Colouring Outside the Lines: Medieval Pigments & How to Use Them.  I loved seeing so many smiling faces folding double headed swans in concentrated silence at the Hyperbolic Origami session.

My wonderful and patient colleague, Lucy Ridley, and I then spent the summer reviewing our processes and the feedback we received from organisers and attendees of the Festival. We came up with a whole raft of experiments to implement in order to test what we could streamline and smooth. We have been delighted to see these changes bearing fruit, as we have worked with partners to update and re-skin our website, have slimmed down and tightened up our application forms and administrative processes and have switched up the way we communicate with and gather together our organisers. All in all the changes seem to be working to make the Festival even more creative, energised and enjoyable than before – hooray!

This year we have a remarkable number of events across an extraordinary range of topics and activities. I can hardly look at the events programme (with the help of our new and improved handy calendar search widget) without wishing I had a cloning machine as I want to go to EVERYTHING!

Some of my highlights are as follows, but I do encourage you to have a look as I bet there will be many, or at least one or two, that you’ll be raring to sign up for…

EMPS: 24-hour Filmmaking Competition

HYPED Local Challenge

Reliving the Rhino Head: Jim Haynes’ Paperback Bookstore Revived

The Mobile Campus: Imagining The Future of Distributed Education at the University of Edinburgh

The Siege of Infosec: A Medieval Perspective on Information Security

Women in Medicine – a Wikipedia edit-a-thon

Keep an eye out for Lucy and me in our Festival Hoodies – we will be popping into events throughout the week and would love to hear all about your Festival experience.

Also a few notes for Festival Organisers before I go:

Communications

You’re all doing such a brilliant job – please do keep spreading the word about the Festival and your events. We recommend social media (be sure to use #FCL18 and we will repost), lecture shout outs and popping into other events to spread the word. Remember that promoting the events of others can often mean that they will spread the word about your event so support others and trade promotion when possible.

Impact and Legacy

Don’t forget that your event means more than what happens in the room on the day. How will you capture your event? Will you write a blog about it (if so, please send it to us for posting on the Festival blog post)? Will you photograph it? Will you film it? Will you share it on social media as it is taking place, and encourage your attendees to do so as well? Think about how you will document your event and tell the story afterwards. If your event goes on to have a life after the Festival, making real world changes in the teaching and learning at the University of Edinburgh and beyond – please tell us!

Evaluation and Attendance

Please remember to take attendance at your events and to prepare and send out a post-event survey to your attendees. It is so important to get a sense of what works and what can be improved, both for us as Festival Coordinators and for you as Event Organisers. Try to keep your surveys short and simple and make sure you are only asking questions that will supply information that will be useful going forward. We have a survey template in our resources that you can use if you like.

Think about interesting and creative ways to evaluate your event – for instance, ask people to Tweet/post their reactions, or have them fill out a little sticky note ‘leaf’ and make a feedback tree for people to leave their thoughts on as they go.

Hopefully I will manage to get through the Festival without a cold this year, though one thing is certain – I have Festival Fever and the only cure is a week of innovative, mindful, experimental, playful and joyful creative fun!

 

Jennifer Williams, Projects & Engagement Coordinator

Institute for Academic Development

Welcome to the Programme – #FCL18 is coming!

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It is with great pleasure that we are now able to reveal the full programme for #FCL18, the curated week of the Festival of Creative Learning at the University of Edinburgh taking place this 19-23rd February.

Jennifer and I are incredibly proud of the 100-and-something staff and student event organisers that have been working incredibly hard behind the scenes since September to plan their individual contributions to this fantastically diverse celebration of creativity, learning and innovation. The commitment and enthusiasm they have all shown to everything the Festival aims and values is inspirational, not least because they have all chosen to be involved on top to their already demanding work and/or study schedules. If you are one of these superstars, thank you!

The vast majority of events are free and open to people who are interested in ideas beyond their subject area. There are talks, conferences, field trips, workshops, film screenings, walking tours, games, hacks, and much more! At this stage I cannot possibly highlight any events in particular and would wholeheartedly encourage you to put aside some time to browse the full programme available on our website. You will also be able to benefit from the recently enhanced calendar and search functions on our re-vamped webpages.

Over the coming weeks we will be introducing some contributors to you in more detail through guest blog posts. Stay tuned to read more about who they are, what they do, what their event is and who should attend.

Finally, for now, if you are a student at the University of Edinburgh and looking for a way to be involved in the Festival whilst earning a bit of money, check out the recently advertised Promotion Assistant opportunity on our Facebook page. We will remove the advert as soon as we have received sufficient applications so don’t delay and contact us today.

 

Lucy Ridley

Projects and Engagement Administrator, Institute for Academic Development

 

 

Festival of Creative Learning 2018: The applications came rolling in

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Happy November and we hope you are all adjusting to the changes of the season. With this blog post, we will provide a tantalising update on preparations for the Festival of Creative Learning 2018.

The deadline for applications was Monday 23rd October at 5pm. When I left work the Friday before we had six applications and it is fair to say I was rather nervous what the overall result would be. Come Monday, any fears I had were swiftly dispatched and our inbox was inundated by a plethora of applications from staff and students across the whole University. I found myself indulging in a self-imposed application processing challenge as I tried to log and acknowledge each marvellous submission at lightning speed before the next came in. I was motivated by colleagues sending me photos of Usain Bolt, and made sure I shared the excitement by making regular progress announcements to my desk neighbour. The total exceeded her estimate significantly!

Many of you will have heard or read that Jennifer and I spent a great deal of time over the summer refining our processes and improving our communications with the intention of making it easier to apply or otherwise get involved with the Festival. We are both delighted that our hard work appears to be starting to pay off as evidenced by your hard work. The quality and diversity of submissions have been phenomenal, making us incredibly excited for February next year.

By the end of next week we hope to have notified all applicants of the outcome of their proposal. For those of you who cannot wait for the official calendar launch in January, here is an early indication of what could be on the programme:

  • Openness – events nurturing an open mindset and curiosity about learning
  • Collaboration – events creating meaningful connections
  • Creativity –  events taking risks and implementing original ideas
  • Mindfulness – events celebrating thoughtful and holistic ways of working
  • Experimentation – events building and prototyping ideas in a supportive environment.*

Thank you to everyone that shares our enthusiasm for the Festival of Creative Learning. We look forward to working with many of you over the coming year.

 

*Yes, well done, these are our values. Sorry, it wouldn’t be right for the world to know about the events before those that applied to run them.

MASSIVE ANNOUNCEMENT – #FCL18

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On behalf of the Festival of Creative Learning I would like to extend a colossal welcome to all new and returning staff and students at the University of Edinburgh. For those of you new to the city or University we hope you enjoy the opportunity to explore new lands and to anyone that is lucky enough to call Edinburgh home, be sure to share your insider tips on all things creative with our new neighbours.

With this blog post we are delighted to announce the call for applications to participate in the second ever curated week of the Festival of Creative Learning, taking place from 19th – 23rd February 2018. This is a unique opportunity for you to embrace your creative spirit and find space for your imagination to flourish. We value openness, collaboration, creativity, mindfulness and experimentation so if you have an idea or project along these lines you should certainly apply. Our aims can be found on our website and we would encourage you  to consider these alongside the Festival Application Guidelines when completing your application (both also available on our website). The deadline for applications is 5pm on Monday 23rd October 2017.

Your event may involve performing, painting, crafting, writing, dyeing, baking, playing, escaping, debating, combining these, or something else entirely. It may be the celebration of something you have been planning for a while, or you might never have done anything like this before. All of these are equally valid as proposals and exciting for us to discover. To get even more inspired be sure to read our impact report available in an earlier blog post and watch the short Festival film from February 2017 available to view here.

We look forward to sharing more blog posts and creativity with you this coming year, but to make sure you don’t miss out on any updates follow us on Twitter and Instagram @UoE_FCL and Facebook @FCLUoE. You can also join our mailing list via this link: http://edin.ac/2us2Rqc (EASE log in required) or email us at creative.learning@ed.ac.uk.

Lucy Ridley & Jennifer Williams

Projects & Engagement Team